Can a research paper have two first authors

Introduction Before beginning your paper, you need to decide how you plan to design the study. The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.

Note that your research problem determines the type of design you should use, not the other way around! Research Design in Social Research. Research Methods Knowledge Base. General Structure and business school essay you to effectively can a research paper have two first authors the can a research paper have two first authors problem logically and as unambiguously as possible. the overall research problem will not be adequately addressed and any conclusions drawn will run the risk of being weak and unconvincing. As a consequence, the overall validity of the study will be undermined.

The length and complexity of essay on bedroom research designs in your paper can vary considerably, but any well-developed design will achieve the following: Identify the research problem clearly and justify its selection, particularly in relation to any valid can a research paper have two first authors designs that could have been used, Review and synthesize previously published can a research paper have two first authors associated with the research problem, Clearly and explicitly specify hypotheses [i.

However, you can get a sense of what to do by reviewing the literature of studies that have utilized the same research design. The database contains links to more thanpersuasive essay on the book night of SAGE publisher’s book, journal, and reference content on quantitative, qualitative, and mixed research methodologies.

Also included is a collection of case studies of social research projects that can be used to you better understand abstract or complex methodological concepts. Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Sage, ; De Vaus, D. Creating Robust Approaches for the Social Sciences.

Sage, ; Leedy, Paul D. Pearson, ; Vogt, W. Gardner, and Lynne M. When essay report about social media Use What Research Design. Action Research Design Definition and Purpose The essentials of action research design follow a characteristic cycle whereby initially an exploratory stance is adopted, where an understanding of a problem is developed and plans are made for some form of interventionary strategy.

Then the intervention is carried out [the “action” in action research] during which time, pertinent observations are collected in various forms. The new interventional strategies Dell wyse case study the problem is achieved.

The protocol is iterative or cyclical in nature and is intended to foster deeper understanding of a given situation, starting with conceptualizing and particularizing the problem and moving through several interventions and evaluations. What do these studies tell you? This is a collaborative and adaptive research design that lends itself to use in work or community situations.

Design focuses on pragmatic and solution-driven research outcomes rather than testing theories. When practitioners use action research, it has the potential to increase the amount they learn consciously from their experience; the action research cycle can be regarded as a Esempio business plan azienda agricola excel cycle.

Action research studies often have direct and obvious relevance to improving practice and advocating for change.

Exactly How Flexible is the Co-First Author Asterisk?

There are no hidden controls or preemption of can a research paper have two first authors by the researcher. What these studies don’t tell you? It is harder to do expository essay form research because the researcher takes on responsibilities of advocating for change as well as for researching the topic.

Action research is much harder to write up because it is less likely that you can use a standard format to report your findings [i. Personal over-involvement of the researcher may bias research results. The cyclic nature of action research to achieve its twin outcomes of action [e. Advocating for change usually requires buy-in from study participants.

Coghlan, David and Mary Brydon-Miller. The Sage Encyclopedia of Action Research. Action Research in Education: Guilford, ; Gall, Meredith.

Chapter 18, Action Research. Norman Denzin and Yvonna S. SAGE,pp. Writing and Doing Action Research. Sage, ; Reason, Peter and Hilary Bradbury.

Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry and common structure for ielts essay writing task 2 Case Study Design Definition and Purpose A case study is an in-depth study of a particular research problem rather than a sweeping statistical survey or comprehesive comparative inquiry.

It is often used to narrow down a very broad field of research into one or a few easily researchable examples. The case study research design is also useful for testing whether a specific theory and model actually applies to phenomena in the real world. It is a useful design when not much is known about an issue or phenomenon.

custom writing plagiarism checker online Approach excels at bringing us to an understanding of a complex issue through detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships.

A researcher using a case study design can apply a variety of methodologies and rely on a variety of sources to investigate a research problem. Design can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research.

Social scientists, in particular, make wide use of this research design to examine contemporary real-life situations and provide the basis for the application of concepts and theories and the can a research paper have two first authors of methodologies. The design can provide detailed descriptions of specific and rare cases. A single or small number of cases offers little basis for establishing reliability or to generalize the findings to a wider population of essay advantages and disadvantages of electronic devices places, or things.

Intense exposure to the study of a case may bias a researcher’s interpretation of the findings. Design does not facilitate assessment of cause and effect relationships. Vital information may be missing, making the case hard to interpret.

The case may not be representative or typical of the larger problem being investigated.

  • Using a copy of the manuscript that I first marked up with any questions that I had, I write a brief summary of what the paper is about and what I feel about its solidity.
  • When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment.
  • Method Researching 1 Begin your research.
  • Stay away from generic and too fuzzy statements and arguments.
  • Scientific control and Design of experiments A controlled experiment often compares the results obtained from experimental samples against control samples, which are practically identical to the experimental sample except for the one aspect whose effect is being tested the independent variable.
  • Wherever necessary, scan at greyscale e.
  • Evidence-Based Dentistry 7

If the criteria for selecting a case is because it represents a very unusual or unique phenomenon or problem for study, then your intepretation of the findings can only apply to that particular case. Chapter 4, Flexible Methods: Columbia University Press, ; Gerring, John. Past, Present and Future Challenges. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research. The Art of Case Study Research. Applied Social Research Methods Series, no. Most social scientists seek causal explanations that reflect tests of hypotheses.

Causal effect nomothetic perspective occurs when variation in one phenomenon, an independent variable, leads to or results, on average, in variation in another phenomenon, the dependent variable. Conditions necessary for determining causality: Empirical association — a valid can a research paper have two first authors is based on finding an association between the independent variable and the dependent variable. Appropriate time order — to conclude that causation was involved, one must see that cases were exposed to can a research paper have two first authors in the independent variable before variation in the dependent variable.

Nonspuriousness — a relationship between two variables that is not due to variation in a third variable. Causality research designs assist researchers in understanding why the world works the way it does through the process coincidence, two unrelated events appear to be related [e.

Conclusions about causal relationships are difficult to determine due to a variety of extraneous and confounding variables that exist in a social environment. This means causality can only be inferred, never proven. If two variables are correlated, the cause must come english essay help online the effect. Beach, Derek and Rasmus Brun Pedersen. Causal Case Study Methods: Foundations and Guidelines for Comparing, Matching, and Tracing.

Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks

University of Michigan Press, ; Bachman, Ronet. Chapter 5, Causation and Research Designs. Sage,pp. Chapter 11, Nonexperimental Research: Cohort Design Definition and Purpose Often used in the medical sciences, but also found in the applied social sciences, a cohort study generally refers to a can a research paper have two first authors conducted over a period of time involving members of a population which the subject or representative member comes from, and who are united by some can a research paper have two first authors or similarity.

Using a quantitative framework, a cohort study makes note of statistical occurrence within a specialized subgroup, united by same or similar characteristics that are relevant to the research problem being investigated, rather than studying statistical occurrence within the general population. Using a qualitative framework, cohort studies generally gather data using methods of observation.

Cohorts can be either “open” or “closed.

How to review a paper

Date of can a research paper have two first authors and exit from the study is individually defined, therefore, the size of the study population is not constant. In open cohort studies, researchers can only calculate rate based data, such as, incidence rates and variants thereof. Closed Cohort Studies case study cyclone sidr populations, such as patients entered into a clinical trial] involve participants who enter into the study at one defining point in time and where it is presumed that no new participants can enter the cohort.

Given this, the number of study participants remains constant or can only decrease. The use of cohorts is often mandatory advantages and disadvantages of taking a gap year essay a randomized control study may be unethical.