White blood cells have receptors that recognise antigens on pathogens, to distinguish between non-self and self.
Different types of white blood cell are adapted to either ingest and digest pathogens, a visit to an orphanage essay produce antibodies to disable them or tag them for 21st century gcse science online homework by other white blood cells. An antibody is specific for only recognises a particular antigen. Once the body has made antibodies against a pathogen, memory cells stay in the body to make antibodies quickly upon re-infection immunity. Be able to describe non-specific defence systems of the human body against 21st centuries gcse science online homework, including examples of physical, chemical and microbial defences 2.
Be able to explain how platelets are adapted to their function in the blood. Be able to describe physical plant defences, including leaf cuticle and cell wall. Be able to explain the role of the immune system of the human body in defence against disease 5.
Be able to explain how white blood cells are adapted to their functions in the blood, including what they do and how it helps protect against disease. Plants do not have circulating immune cells or produce antibodies, but they have a simple immune system that protects them against pathogens.
For example, plants can make antimicrobial substances in response to pathogens. The ability of plants to protect themselves against pathogens is important in human food security.
Be able to describe chemical plant defence responses, including antimicrobial substances. For plants, strategies include regulating the movement of plant material, sourcing healthy plants and seeds, destroying infected plants, polyculture, crop rotation and chemical and biological control.
For animals, including humans, strategies include vaccination to establish immunitycontraception, hygiene, sanitation, sterilising wounds, restricting travel, and destruction of infected animals. Discussion of risk and decision making in the context of disease prevention.
Be able to explain the use of vaccines in the prevention of disease, including the use of safe forms of pathogens and the need to vaccinate a large proportion of the population Chapter Topic B2. There are standard ways to do this, including observing symptoms and taking samples of tissue or body fluid for cell counting, culture, How big is a 5000 word essay staining, testing with antimicrobials, and genome analysis.
In addition, isolation and reinfection can be used is it safe to buy papers online identify plant pathogens. Correct identification relies on use of aseptic techniques to avoid contamination of samples.
Investigating the effect of antibiotic discs on growth of microorganisms on agar plates and practicing aseptic techniques. Be able to describe and explain the aseptic techniques used in culturing 21st centuries gcse science online homework.
All the antibodies produced by the clones recognise the 21st century gcse science online homework antigen. HT only New technologies using monoclonal antibodies are providing diagnostic tests e.
These tests give faster and more accurate results, which enables decisions e. HT only Be able to describe how monoclonal antibodies are produced including the following steps: HT only Be able to describe some of the ways in which monoclonal antibodies can be used in diagnostic tests Chapter Topic B2.
The interaction of genetic and lifestyle factors can increase or decrease the risk. Be able to use given data to explain the incidence of non-communicable diseases at local, national and global levels with reference to lifestyle factors, including exercise, diet, alcohol and smoking 3. In the context of data related to the 21st centuries gcse science online homework, spread, effects and treatment of disease be able to: Be able to describe interactions between different types of disease.
Antibiotics are becoming less effective due to the appearance of antibiotic resistant bacteria. For non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, strategies that lower the risk of developing the disease have benefits compared to treatments administered later.
Many factors need to be considered when prescribing treatments, including the likely effectiveness, risk of adverse reactions news.uho.com.tw the costs and benefits to the patient and others. Be able to evaluate some different 21st centuries gcse science online homework for lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease and treating it, including lifestyle changes, medicines and surgery.
Studying the genomes and proteins of pathogens and host cells can suggest targets for new medicines. Large libraries of substances are screened for their ability to affect a target. It is unlikely that a perfect medicine will be found during screening, but substances are selected for modification and further tests.
All new medicines have to be tested before they are made widely available. Preclinical testing, for safety and effectiveness, uses cultured human cells and animals. Clinical testing uses healthy human volunteers to test for safety, and humans with the disease to test for safety and effectiveness.
There are ethical questions around using placebos in tests best dissertation writing services people with a disease 4. Be able to describe the process of discovery and development of potential new medicines including preclinical and clinical testing – consider ethics in the context of using placebos in clinical testing of new medicines.
HT only Some traditional treatments e.
New technologies are enabling us to develop treatments that are more effective and have a lower risk of adverse reactions. For example, the specificity of monoclonal antibodies can be used to target cancer cells without damaging normal host cells. HT only Be able to describe how monoclonal antibodies can be used to treat cancer including: From your Key Stage 3 Science, learners will be familiar with the reactants and products of 21st century gcse science online homework, and the need for light in the process.
You will expand your knowledge of the interdependencies between organisms within ecosystems in Topic B3. From your Key Stages 1 to 3 science studies about food and ecosystems you should Some of the glucose is used as the fuel for cellular respiration, some is converted into starch and then stored, and the 21st century gcse science online homework is used to make lipids, proteins and other carbohydrates for growth.
Photosynthesis involves many chemical reactions, but can be summarised in two main stages. The first stage requires light and chlorophyll located in chloroplasts in plant cells to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen is transferred to the second stage, but the oxygen is released into the atmosphere as a waste product.
The second stage combines carbon dioxide with hydrogen to make glucose. Photosynthesis, importance explained, limiting factors affecting rate Revision Notes 2. Be able to explain how chloroplasts in plant cells are related to photosynthesis. The reactions in photosynthesis and many other biological processes are catalysed by enzymes. The lock and key model can be used to explain enzyme action.
It can also be used to make predictions about the effect on the rate of enzyme-catalysed reactions when the substrate concentration, temperature and pH are changed.
Investigating the effects of substrate concentration, temperature and pH on enzyme activity, be able to use lock and key model to explain and make predictions about enzyme activity.
See also Enzymes and Biotechnology gcse chemistry notes Appreciate that understanding of how factors affect enzyme activity helps to explain the effects of temperature and carbon dioxide concentration on the rate of photosynthesis.
All students from websites that write research papers for you They have specific duties: They have a duty to report to local management any failure of equipment that has a health and safety function.
Staff practice must set a good example to students and be consistent with student laboratory rules, e. Laboratories 21st century gcse science online homework be left safe. Special arrangements must be made for equipment which has to be left running overnight and hazardous equipment which has to be left out. In general, all gas taps should be completely turned off and all 21st centuries gcse science online homework operated apparatus switched off.
At the end of the day, if practicable, gas should also be turned off at the laboratory main gas cock and electricity at the laboratory main switch. Eating, 21st century gcse science online homework and the application of 21st centuries gcse science online homework should not take place in laboratories, storage areas or preparation rooms unless an area in which it thesis about organic soap safe to do so has been created.
Students should not be allowed to 21st century gcse science online homework from water bottles. When staff are alone in the Science department, nothing should be done which could 21st century gcse science online homework to an accident requiring remedial measures. A teacher or technician must assess risks very carefully before conducting any practical operation in such circumstances. In general, students must not be left unsupervised in a laboratory. Staff needing to leave a class briefly must assess the risks of doing so, perhaps arranging for temporary supervision by a neighbouring member of staff.
Special arrangements may be needed for senior students doing project work, depending on the hazards involved, e. Science laboratories, preparation rooms and stores must be locked by staff when not in use. Students must never be allowed into preparation rooms.
Laboratories must be available for teacher-supervised club activities only by special arrangement. Teachers At the beginning of each school year, teachers must make sure that their classes have copies of the student laboratory rules and issue them if necessary.
They should be affixed inside an exercise book, work folder or similar place. Teachers must enforce the student laboratory rules, reminding students of them often enough for them to be familiar. With new students, time should be spent explaining the rules, with appropriate demonstrations.
Lesson preparation should be adequate and include checking on risk assessments and, where necessary, the health and safety precautions required. Requisitions must not be handed in at the last minute; technicians must be given adequate time to prepare work safely.
Time should be allowed for consulting more senior colleagues, where there is any doubt, and to try out experiments — particularly those involving significant hazards. Teachers must only deviate from the scheme of work for which the 21st centuries gcse science online homework have been checked Essay on success after failure model risk assessmentsafter making a further risk assessment, checked with a subject specialist, possibly obtaining a special risk assessment from CLEAPSS.
If, because of large class size or indiscipline, health and safety cannot be maintained during certain practical work, the work should be modified or abandoned.
This 21st century gcse science online homework should be reported to the Head of Science. Teachers are responsible for the health and 21st century gcse science online homework of any of their classes taken by a trainee teacher.
If the normal class teacher is absent, another science teacher must be given this responsibility by the Head of Department. Teachers in 21st century gcse science online homework of courses are responsible for ensuring that technicians are familiar with the appropriate precautions needed to control any hazards which might be encountered in preparing equipment for their lessons and in clearing the equipment away.
Class teachers may need to remind technicians of such warnings. The purpose of this document is to record the arrangements made in the Science Department to implement the policy [in accordance with the Code of Practice or Guidance issued by the employer]. This document is maintained by the Science Department. It is copied to all new members of staff, i.
A copy of this document has been and passed to the employer for endorsement. This document recognises the right of any or every trade union in the workplace to elect My country nepal essay in english and safety representatives for its members and its 21st century gcse science online homework to require a health and safety committee to be set up in the school. The Science Department will cooperate with any union health and safety representative to promote health, safety and welfare and will address any matters raised by or through such a representative in a manner appropriate to the level of risk.
General aims Science teaching has an excellent health and safety record and this department is keen to promote practical work as an essential component of good science 21st century gcse science online homework. It is determined that spurious concerns about health my essay writer safety should not be allowed to inhibit good teaching.
However, it is the duty of all members of the science staff, staff who work in the department occasionally, technicians, teaching assistants and other support staff e. This employer has not currently issued any local instructions specific to science. Within the Science Department, this task is delegated to the Head of Science who has the particular function of maintaining this policy document. Communications It is acknowledged that communication of health and safety information is of the greatest importance and is the task of the Head of Science with the assistance of subject specialists.
In this department, all staff are issued with this policy. A reference copy is kept in the Head of Science office. Any new instructions, restrictions or rescinded lifted restrictions made by the employer are communicated to all staff in writing as well as being attached to the reference copy of this policy. Records of monitoring are kept by the Head of Department. The timetable for such checks is kept with the reference copy of this policy. Records of the www.promoteam.cz are kept by the Head of Science.
Training policy The person with the task of seeing that training is provided is the Head of Science. Health and safety aspects of the work of newly qualified teachers and other new teachers — Head of Department Health and safety of trainees on teaching practice — Head of Department Induction of newly-appointed technicians — Senior Technician Immediate remedial measures and other emergency procedures spills, bench fires, — Head of Department Training in the use of specialist equipment, chemicals or procedures in line with CLEAPSS guides L and L, as customised — Head of Science.
Health and safety training of non-science support staff — Head of Science Manual 21st century gcse science online homework for all staff using 21st centuries gcse science online homework — Head of Science Healthy and safe procedures for laboratory cleaners — Head of Science Regular update training covering new or changed regulations, new equipment, etc.
Risk assessments Every employer is required, under various regulations, to supply employees with a risk assessment before any hazardous activity takes place. The employer has instructed that the following publications are to be used as sources of model general risk assessments: In order to assess the risks adequately, the funny boy essay thesis information is collected. Details of the proposed activity.
The age and ability of the persons likely to do it. Details of the room to be used, i.
Any substance s possibly hazardous to 21st century gcse science online homework. The quantities of substances hazardous to health likely to be used, www.promoteam.cz the concentrations of any solutions.
Any other relevant details, e. Since the 21st century gcse science online homework of work has been checked against the model risk assessments, staff should deviate from it only if their proposed activities have essay food packaging agreed with the Head of Science.
We encourage the development of new practical activities including on Open Evenings, at Science Clubs, etc. Where an activity must be restricted to those with special training, that restriction is included in a note on the text.